Search Publications

Please use our searchable database to find publications from the Unit since 2000 in which you are interested. By default the most recent publications (and papers in press) will show. As well as searching by date of publication, type of publication and research programme the top box allows you to search by author, words or phrases in the title and the journal.

Latest publications

These are our 100 latest publications:

[in press]

Bonner R, Bountziouka V, Stocks J, Harding S, Wade A, Griffiths C, Sears D, Fothergill H, Slevin H, Lum S. Accessibility of birth data via primary care health records in multi-ethnic primary school-children: an observational study primary care respiratory medicine. International Journal of Ethnicitiy [in press]

Christian B, Young D, Gibbs L, de Silva A, Gold L, Riggs E, Calache H, Tadic M, Hall M, Moore L, Waters E . Exploring child dental service use among migrant families in Metropolitan Melbourne. Australian Dental Journal [in press]

Ferguson TS, Younger-Coleman NO, Tulloch-Reid MK, Knight-Madden JM, Bennett NR, Samms-Vaughan M, Ashley D, Mccaw-Binns A, Molaodi OR, Cruickshank JK, Harding S, Wilks RJ. Early life predictors of blood pressure in Afro-Caribbean young adults: the Jamaica 1986 Birth Cohort study. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology [in press]

Gaye A, Marcon Y, Isaeva J, LaFlamme P, Turner A, Jones EM, Minion J, Boyd AW, Newby CJ, Nuotio ML, Wilson OB, Murtagh B, Demir I, Doiron D, Giepmans L, Wallace SE, Budin-Ljøsne I, Schmidt CO, Boffetta P, Boniol M, Bota M, Carter KW, deKlerk N, Dibben C, Francis RW, Hiekkalinna T, Hveem K, Kvaløy K, Millar S, Perry IJ, Peters A, Phillips CM, Popham F, et al . DataSHIELD: taking the analysis to the 1 data, not the data to the analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology [in press]

Green MJ, Leyland AH, Sweeting H, Benzeval M. Socioeconomic position and early adolescent smoking development: evidence from the British Youth Panel Survey (1994-2008). Tobacco Control [in press]

Harding S, Read U, Molaodi O, Cassidy A, Ferrell C. Determinants of Adolescent Social well-being and Health (DASH) cohort: now in their 20s. Open Health Data [in press]

Hunt K, Wyke S, Gray C, Bunn C, Singh B. Football Fans in Training: a weight management and healthy living programme for men delivered via Scotland’s premier football clubs. In: Conrad D, White A, editors Sports-based health interventions: case studies from around the world. New York: Springer, [in press].

Jani BD, Cavanagh J, Barry S, Der G, Sattar N, Mair FS. Revisiting the J shaped curve, exploring the association between cardiovascular risk factors and concurrent depressive symptoms in patients with cardiometabolic disease: Findings from a large cross-sectional study. BMC Cardiovascular Medicine [in press]

Katikireddi SV, Hilton S. How did policy actors use mass media to influence the Scottish alcohol minimum unit pricing debate? Comparative analysis of newspapers, evidence submissions and interviews. Drugs: Education, Prevention & Policy [in press]

Katikireddi SV, Valles S. Coupled ethical-epistemic analysis of public health research and practice: categorizing variables to improve population health and equity. American Journal of Public Health [in press]

Kearns A, Whitely E, Tannahill C, Ellaway A. Dimensions of loneliness and its associations with wellbeing among residents of deprived areas. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology [in press]

Kearns A, Whitley E, Tannahill C, Ellaway A. Lonesome town? Is loneliness associated with the residential environment, including housing, neighbourhood and community factors?. Journal of Community Psychology [in press]

Lum S, Bountziouka V, Harding S, Wade A, Lee S, Bonner R, Stocks J . Assessing pubertal status in multi-ethnic primary school children. Acta Pædiatrica [in press]

MacLean A, Harden J . Reflections on researching with children using ‘family group interviews’ as part of a qualitative longitudinal study. International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies [special issue] [in press]

MacLean A, Hunt K, Gray C, Smillie S, Wyke S. How do men’s female relatives feature in their accounts of changing eating practices during a weight-management programme delivered through professional football clubs?. International Journal of Men’s Health [in press]

Moore G, Audrey S, Barker M, Bond L, Bonell C, Hardeman W, Moore L, O’Cathain A, Tinati T, Wight D, Baird J. Process evaluation of complex interventions: Medical Research Council guidance. London, [in press]

Moore G, Audrey S, Barker M, Bond L, Bonell C, Hardeman W, Moore L, O’Cathain A, Tinati T, Wight D, Baird J. Process evaluation of complex interventions: a summary of Medical Research Council guidance. In: Richards D, Hallberg IR, editors Complex interventions in health: an overview of research methods. Abingdon: Routledge, [in press].

Read UM. ‘Doctor sickness’ or ‘pastor sickness’? Contested domains of healing power in the treatment of mental illness in Kintampo, Ghana. In: Basu H, Littlewood R, Steinforth, editors Religion, spirituality, and psychiatry: negotiating healthy minds - unsettling clinical practices. New York: [in press].

Read UM. Madness and miracles: hoping for healing in rural Ghana. In: Littlewood R, Napier D, editors Cosmos, Gods and Madmen in the Anthropology of Medicine. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press, [in press].

Robertson T, Benzeval M, Whitley E, Popham F. The role of material, psychosocial and behavioral factors in mediating the association between socioeconomic position and allostatic load. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity [in press]

Trevisan F. Contentious disability politics on the world stage: protest at the London 2012 Paralympics. In: Jackson D, Hodges C, Molesworth M, Scullion R, editors Reframing disability? Media, (dis)empowerment and voice in the 2012 Paralympics. London: Routledge, [in press].

Trevisan F. Search engines: from social science objects to academic inquiry tools. First Monday [in press]

Wyke S, Hunt K, Gray C, Fenwick E, Bunn C, Donnan P, Rauchhaus P, Mutrie N, Anderson A, Boyer N, Brady A, Grieve E, White A, Ferrell C, Hindle E, Treweek S. Football Fans in Training (FFIT): a randomized controlled trial of a gender-sensitive weight loss and healthy living programme delivered to men aged 35-65 by Scottish Premier League (SPL) football clubs. Public Health Research [in press]

2014

Benzeval M, Bond L, Campbell M, Egan M, Lorenc T, Petticrew M, Popham F. How does money influence health?. Joseph Rowntree Foundation, York, 2014

open access  

Bonell C, Humphrey N, Fletcher A, Moore L, Anderson R. Why schools should promote students’ health and wellbeing [editorial]. BMJ 2014;348:g3078

open access  

Boydell N, Fergie GM, McDaid L, Hilton S. Avoiding pitfalls and realising opportunities: reflecting on issues of sampling and recruitment for online focus groups. International Journal of Qualitative Methods 2014;13:206-223

open access  

Brueton V, Stevenson F, Vale CL, Stenning SP, Tierney JF, Harding S, Nazareth I, Meredith S, Rait G. Use of strategies to improve retention in primary care randomised trials: a qualitative study with in-depth interviews. BMJ Open 2014;4:e003835

open access  

Brueton VC, Tierney JF, Stenning S, Meredith S, Harding S, Nazareth I, Rait G. Strategies to improve retention in randomised trials: a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open 2014;4:e003821

open access  

Buston K, Parkes A, Wight D. High and low contraceptive use amongst male young offenders: a qualitative interview study. Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care 2014;40:248–253

open access  

Campbell M, Egan M, Lorenc T, Bond L, Popham F, Fenton C, Benzeval M. Considering methodological options for reviews of theory: illustrated by a review of theories linking income and health. BMC Systematic Reviews 2014;[epub ahed of print]

open access  

Cleland CL, Hunter RF, Tully MA, Scott D, Kee F, Donnelly M, Prior L, Cupples ME. Identifying solutions to increase participation in physical activity interventions within a socio-economically disadvantaged community: a qualitative study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2014;11:68

open access  

Clemens T, Popham F, Boyle P. What is the effect of unemployment on all-cause mortality? A cohort study using propensity score matching. European Journal of Public Health 2014;[epub ahead of print]

Cooper MJF. Migrants’ health beliefs and their impact on general practice encounters: an in-depth interview study of French- and Swahili-speaking Africans and general practitioners working with migrant patients [PhD], MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow 2014.

Curl A, Kearns A., Tannahill C, Egan M, Ellaway A. Physical and mental health outcomes following housing improvements: evidence from the GoWell study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2014;[in press]

open access  

Der G, Everitt BS. A handbook of statistical graphics using SAS ODS. Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2014.

Donaldson C, Roy M, Hill-O'Connor C, Biosca O, Baker R, Kay A, Gillespie M, Godwin J, Morgan A, Skelton D, Stewart J, Anderson I, Docherty C, Fulford H, Munoz S, Teasdale S, Thomson H. Global issues, local solutions: rethinking wealth and health through the lens of social enteprise. Yunus Centre for Social Business & Health, Glasgow Caledonian University HEWPS Number: 201402, Glasgow, 2014

open access  

Dundas R, Leyland AH, Macintyre S. Early-life school, neighborhood, and family influences on adult health: a multilevel cross-classified analysis of the Aberdeen children of the 1950s study. American Journal of Epidemiology 2014;180:197-207

open access  

Dundas R, Leyland AH, Macintyre S. Multilevel analysis of individual heterogeneity: a fundamental critique of the current probabilistic risk factor epidemiology [response to invited commentary]. American Journal of Epidemiology 2014;180:208-12

open access  

Dundas R, Ouédraogo S, Bond L, Briggs AH, Chalmers J, Gray R, Wood R, Leyland AH. Evaluation of Health in Pregnancy grants in Scotland: a protocol for a natural experiment. BMJ Open 2014;4:e006547

open access  

Eberth B, Olajide D, Craig P, Ludbrook A. Smoking-related disease risk, area deprivation and health behaviours. Journal of Public Health 2014;36:72-80

open access  

Ellaway A. The impact of the local social and physical local environment on wellbeing. In: Burton E, Cooper R, editors Wellbeing and the environment Vol 2. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014.

Estrade M, Dick S, Crawford F, Jepson R, Ellaway A, McNeill G. A qualitative study of independent fast food vendors near secondary schools in disadvantaged Scottish neighbourhoods. BMC Public Health 2014;14:793

open access  

Farmer J, Nimegeer A. Community participation to design rural primary healthcare services. BMC Health Services Research 2014;14:130

Gardner M, Bann D, Wiley L, Cooper R, Hardy R, Nitsch D, Martin-Ruiz C, Shiels P, Sayer AA, Barbieri M, Bekaert S, Bischoff C, Brooks-Wilson A, Chen W, Cooper C, Christensen K, Meyer TD, Deary I, Der G, Roux AD, Fitzpatrick A, Hajat A, Halaschek-Wiener J, Harris S, Hunt SC, Jagger C, Jeon HS, Kaplan R, Kimura M, Lansdorp P, Li C, Maeda T, Mangino M, Nawrot TS, Nilsson P, Nordfjall K, Paolisso G, Ren F, Riabowol K, Robertson T, Roos G, Staessen JA, Spector T, Tang N, Unryn B, Harst PVD, Woo J, Xing C, Yadegarfar ME, Park JY, Young N, Kuh D, Zglinicki TV, Ben-Shlomo Y. Gender and telomere length: systematic review and meta-analysis. Experimental Gerontology 2014;51:15–27

open access  

Gibbs L, Waters E, de Silva A, Riggs E, Moore L, Armit C, Johnson B. An exploratory trial implementing a community-based child oral health promotion intervention for Australian families from refugee and migrant backgrounds: a protocol paper for Teeth Tales. BMJ open 2014;4:e004260

open access  

Gorman DR, Katikireddi SV, Morris C, Chalmers JWT, Sim J, Szamotulska K, Mierzejewska E, Hughes RG. Ethnic variation in maternity care: a comparison of Polish and Scottish women delivering in Scotland 2004-2009. Public Health 2014;128:262–267

pubmed  

Gorman E, Leyland AH, McCartney G, White IR, Katikireddi SV, Rutherford L, Graham L, Gray L. Assessing the representativeness of population-sampled health surveys through linkage to administrative data on alcohol-related outcomes. American Journal of Epidemiology 2014;180 :941-948

open access  

Green MJ, Espie CA, Benzeval M. Social class and gender patterning of insomnia symptoms and psychiatric distress: a 20-year prospective cohort study. BMC Psychiatry 2014;14

open access  

Green MJ. Latent class analysis was accurate but sensitive in data simulations. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2014;67:1157–1162

open access  

Hanewinkel R, Sargent JD, Hunt K, Sweeting S, Engels RCME, Scholte RHJ, Mathis F, Florek E, Morgenstern M. Portrayal of alcohol consumption in movies and drinking initiation in low-risk adolescents. Pediatrics 2014;133:1-10

open access  

Hartley J, Wight D, Hunt K. Presuming the influence of the media: teenagers’ constructions of gender identity through sexual/romantic relationships and alcohol consumption. Sociology of Health & Illness 2014;36:772-86

open access  

Hilton S, Wood K, Patterson C, Katikireddi SV. Implications for alcohol minimum unit pricing advocacy: what can we learn for public health from UK newsprint coverage of key claim-makers in the policy debate?. Social Science & Medicine 2014;102:157–164

open access  

Hotchkiss JW, Davies CA, Dundas R, Hawkins N, Jhund PS, Scholes S, Bajekal M, O’Flaherty M, Critchley J, Leyland AH, Capewell S. Explaining trends in Scottish coronary heart disease mortality between 2000 and 2010: socioeconomic analysis using the IMPACTSEC model. The BMJ 2014;348:g1088

open access  

Hunt K, Gray CM, Maclean A, Smillie S, Bunn C, Wyke S. Do weight management programmes delivered at professional football clubs attract and engage high risk men? A mixed-methods study. BMC Public Health 2014;14:50

open access  

Hunt K, Sweeting H. You have been QUALIFIED for a smokeless e-cig starter kit [gallery]. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2014;68:786

open access  

Hunt K, Wyke S, Gray CM, Anderson AS, Brady A, Bunn C, Donnan PT, Fenwick E, Grieve E, Leishman J, Miller E, Mutrie N, Rauchhaus P, White A, Treweek S. A gender-sensitised weight loss and healthy living programme for overweight and obese men delivered by Scottish Premier League football clubs (FFIT): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. The Lancet 2014;383:1211-21

open access  

Jones R, Heim D, Hunter S, Ellaway A. The relative influence of neighbourhood incivilities, cognitive social capital, club membership and individual characteristics on positive mental health. Health & Place 2014;28:187-193

open access  

Katikireddi SV, Bond L, Hilton S. Changing policy framing as a deliberate strategy for public health advocacy: a qualitative policy case study of minimum unit pricing of alcohol. Milbank Quarterly 2014;92:250-83

open access  

Katikireddi SV, Bond L, Hilton S. Perspectives on econometric modelling to inform policy: a UK qualitative case study of minimum unit pricing of alcohol. European Journal of Public Health 2014;24:490-495

open access  

Katikireddi SV, Hilton S, Bonell C, Bond L. Understanding the development of Minimum Unit Pricing of alcohol in Scotland: a qualitative study of the policy process. PLoS One 2014;9:e91185

open access  

Katikireddi SV, McKee M, Craig P, Stuckler D. The NHS reforms in England: four challenges to evaluating success and failure. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 2014;107:387-392

Katikireddi SV, Smith KE. Minimum unit pricing of alcohol in Scotland. In: Hill M, editor Studying public policy: an international approach. Bristol: Policy Press, 2014.

Kearns A, Bailey N, Gannon M, Livingston M, Leyland AH. 'All in it together?' Social cohesion in a divided society: attitudes to income inequality and redistribution in a residential context. Journal of Social Policy 2014;43:453-477

open access  

Kearns A, Whitley E, Tannahill C, Ellaway A. Loneliness, social relations and health and wellbeing in deprived communities. Psychology, Health & Medicine 2014;[epub ahead of print]

Keown LJ, Palmer M. Comparisons between paternal and maternal involvement: early to middle childhood. Early Child Development and Care 2014;184:99-117

open access  

Klabbers G, Bosma H, Kempen GI, Benzeval M, Van den Akker M, van Eijk JT. Do psychosocial profiles predict self-rated health, morbidity and mortality in late middle-aged and older people?. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 2014;37:357–368

pubmed  open access  

Knussen C, Flowers P, McDaid L. Factors associated with recency of HIV testing amongst men residing in Scotland who have sex with men. AIDS Care 2014;26:297-303

pubmed  

Lawson K, Mason H, McIntosh E, Donaldson C. Priority setting in public health. In: Culyer T, editor Encyclopedia of Health Economics. Elsevier, 2014:155-162.

Lees R, Selvarajah J, Fenton C, Pendlebury ST, Langhorne P, Stott DJ, Quinn TJ. Test accuracy of cognitive screening tests for diagnosis of dementia and multidomain cognitive impairment in stroke. Stroke 2014;45:3008-18

Levin K, Nicholls N, Macdonald S, Dundas R, Douglas GV. Geographic and socioeconomic variations in adolescent toothbrushing: a multilevel cross-sectional study of 15 year olds in Scotland. Journal of Public Health 2014;[epub ahead of print]

Levin KA, Dundas R, Miller M, McCartney G. Socioeconomic and geographic inequalities in adolescent smoking: a multilevel cross-sectional study of 15 year olds in Scotland. Social Science & Medicine 2014;107:162–170

open access  

Leyland AH, Groenewegen PP. Hierarchical linear modeling. In: Michalos AC, editor Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research. Dordrecht: Springer, 2014:2861-2863.

Leyland AH, Groenewegen PP. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). In: Michalos AC, editor Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research. Dordrecht: Springer, 2014:3367-3368.

Li J, McDaid L. Alcohol and drug use during unprotected anal intercourse among gay and bisexual men in Scotland: What are the implications for HIV prevention?. Sexually Transmitted Infections 2014;90:125-132

open access  

Lien N, Haerens L, Te Velde SJ, Mercken L, Klepp KI, Moore L, de Bourdeaudhuij I, Faggiano F, van Lenthe FJ. Exploring subgroup effects by socioeconomic position of three effective school-based dietary interventions: the European TEENAGE project. International Journal of Public Health 2014;59:493-502

open access  

Littlecott HJ, Moore GF, Moore L, Murphy S. Psychosocial mediators of change in physical activity in the Welsh National Exercise Referral Scheme: secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2014;11:109

open access  

Lohan M, Aventin Á, Maguire L, Clarke M, Linden M, McDaid L. Feasibility trial of a film-based educational intervention for increasing boys’ and girls’ intentions to avoid teenage pregnancy: study protocol. International Journal of Educational Research 2014;68:35-45

Lorenc T, Petticrew M, Whitehead M, Neary D, Clayton S, Wright K, Thomson H, Cummins S, Sowden A, Renton A. Crime, fear of crime and mental health: synthesis of theory and systematic reviews of interventions and qualitative evidence. Public Health Research 2014;2:1-424

open access  

Lorimer K, Martin S, McDaid LM. The views of general practitioners and practice nurses towards the barriers and facilitators of proactive, Internet-based Chlamydia screening for reaching young heterosexual men. BMC Family Practice 2014;15:127

open access  

Lum S, Sonnappa S, Wade A, Harding S, Wells J, Trelevan P, Cole T, Griffiths C, Kelly F, Bonner R, Bountziouka V, Kirkby J, Lee S, Raywood E, Legg S, Sears D, Stocks J. Exploring ethnic differences in lung function: the Size and Lung function In Children (SLIC) study protocol and feasibility. London, 2014

open access  

Lyons AC, Emslie C, Hunt K. Staying 'in the zone' but not passing the 'point of no return': embodiment, gender and drinking in mid-life. Sociology of Health & Illness 2014;36:264-277

open access  

Lyons RA, Ford DV, Moore L, Rodgers SE. Use of data linkage to measure the population health effect of non-health-care interventions [editorial]. The Lancet 2014;383:1517-1519

Martin S, McDaid LM, Hilton S. Double-standards in reporting of risk and responsibility for sexual health: a qualitative content analysis of negatively toned UK newsprint articles. BMC Public Health 2014;14:792

open access  

McCann M, Grundy E, O’Reilly D. Urban and rural differences in risk of admission to a care home: a census-based follow-up study. Journal of Health and Place 2014;[epub ahead of print]:171-176

McCann M, Higgins K, Perra O, McCartan C, McLaughlin A. Adolescent ecstasy use and depression: cause and effect, or two outcomes of home environment?. European Journal of Public Health 2014;24:845-850

open access  

Mccrorie PRW, Fenton C, Ellaway A. Combining GPS, GIS, and accelerometry to explore the physical activity and environment relationship in children and young people: a review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2014;11:93

McDaid LM, Buston KM, Mercer C, Stephenson J, McManus S, Copas A, Glasier A, Wellings K. '…the best of a bad bunch' A qualitative study of reasons for contraceptive discontinuation and switching among women in England. Contraception 2014;[epub ahead of print]

McIntosh E, Bond L, Donaldson C, Lawson K, Mason H. Economics of population health. In: Guest G, Namey E, editors Public Health Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2014.

Miller C, Magdalina A, Willows RI, Bowman AW, Scott EM, Lee D, Burgess C, Pope L, Pannullo F, Haggarty R. Spatiotemporal statistical modelling of long-term change in river nutrient concentrations in England & Wales. Science of the Total Environment 2014;466-467:914-923

open access  

Moore G, Moore L, Ahmed N, Littlecott H, Holliday J. Exposure to secondhand smoke in cars and e-cigarette use among 10-11 year old children in Wales: CHETS Wales 2 - key findings report. Welsh Government Social Research 71/2014, Cardiff, 2014

open access  

Moore SC, O’Brien C, Alam MF, Cohen D, Hood K, Huang C, Moore L, Murphy S, Playle R, Sivarajasingam V, Spasic I, Williams A, Shepherd J. All-Wales licensed premises intervention (AWLPI): a randomised controlled trial to reduce alcohol-related violence. BMC Public Health 2014;14:21

open access  

Morgenstern M, Sargent JD, Sweeting H, Faggiano F, Mathis F, Hanewinkel R. Favourite alcohol advertisements and binge drinking among adolescents: a cross-cultural cohort study. Addiction 2014;[epub ahead of print]

pubmed  

Newbold KB, Watson S, Ellaway A. Emigration of Scottish steelworkers to Canada: impacts on social networks. Population, Space and Place 2014;[epub ahead of print]

open access  

Niedzwiedz C, Katikireddi SV, Pell JP, Mitchell R. Socioeconomic inequalities in the quality of life of older Europeans in different welfare regimes. European Journal of Public Health 2014;24 :364-370

open access  

Niedzwiedz CL, Katikireddi SV, Pell JP, Mitchell R. The association between life course socioeconomic position and life satisfaction in different welfare states: European comparative study of individuals in early old age. Age and Ageing 2014;43:431-6

open access  

Oliver M, Badland H, Mavoa S, Witten K, Kearns R, Ellaway A, Hinckson E, Mackay L, Schluter PJ. Environmental and socio-demographic associates of children's active transport to school: a cross-sectional investigation from the URBAN Study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2014;11:70

open access  

Parkes A, Sweeting H, Wight D. Growing up in Scotland: family and school influences on children’s social and emotional well-being. Edinburgh, 2014

open access  

Parkes A, Waylen A, Sayal K, Heron J, Henderson M, Wight D, Macleod J. Which behavioral, emotional and school problems in middle-childhood predict early sexual behavior?. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 2014;43:507-527

open access  

Patterson C, Katikireddi SV, Wood K, Hilton S. Representations of minimum unit pricing for alcohol in UK newspapers: a case study of a public health policy debate. Journal of Public Health 2014;[epub ahead of print]

open access  

Popham F, Williamson L, Whitley E. Is changing status through housing tenure associated with changes in mental health? Results from the British Household Panel Survey. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2014;[epub ahead of print]