Ethnicity and Health

Addressing ethnic inequalities is a key aspect of initiatives of UK governments and also of international organisations. In spite of considerable research, the causes of ethnic differences in health (e.g. excess hypertension in Black African origin and coronary events in South Asians) remain a scientific and policy challenge. The overall aim of our programme is to focus on how the timing and duration of social exposures are related to ethnic differences in health and health related behaviours over the life course. This allows us to identify key time points when interventions to reduce ethnic inequalities in health could be most effective, but also gives insights into improving health outcomes for all groups, especially where some ethnic groups do better than average.

Our objectives are to investigate:
(1) the extent to which social, economic and psychological circumstances contribute to differences in health at different stages of the life course within and between ethnic groups;
(2) change and stability in key influences on health such as family life, socio-economic disadvantage and neighbourhood environments and
(3) the extent to which and why the health of ethnic groups of similar ancestry varies in different country settings.

We focus on the major ethnic minority groups (Black Caribbean, Black African, Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi), critical stages of the life course, generational differences (including UK-born and other born) and major diseases. The lack of longitudinal studies of ethnic minorities has made it difficult to investigate when health differences emerge, and to understand transmission of health potential across generations. Our Determinants in Adolescent Social well-being and Health (DASH) study is a unique resource that we use to track ethnic differences in cardiovascular, respiratory and mental health from youth to adulthood. Our international comparisons of ethnic inequalities in health include countries at different stages of development. Variations in the patterns of inequalities signal influences in the host environment such as educational chances, health behaviours, access to health care, which in turn are associated with and influenced by the political, economic and social fabric of countries.

We use multiple methods including longitudinal studies, national and international surveys and qualitative studies. We complement our explanatory research with experimental research, a shift which we have recently initiated for the prevention of obesity in ethnic minority young people. Our empirical studies are linked to various activities in the communities to foster information exchange and help us ensure culturally appropriate designs.

Publications

[in press]

Bonner R, Bountziouka V, Stocks J, Harding S, Wade A, Griffiths C, Sears D, Fothergill H, Slevin H, Lum S. Accessibility of birth data via primary care health records in multi-ethnic primary school-children: an observational study primary care respiratory medicine. Primary Care Respiratory Medicine [in press]

Ferguson TS, Younger-Coleman NO, Tulloch-Reid MK, Knight-Madden JM, Bennett NR, Samms-Vaughan M, Ashley D, Mccaw-Binns A, Molaodi OR, Cruickshank JK, Harding S, Wilks RJ. Early life predictors of blood pressure in Afro-Caribbean young adults: the Jamaica 1986 Birth Cohort study. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology [in press]

Harding S, Read U, Molaodi O, Cassidy A, Ferrell C. Determinants of Adolescent Social well-being and Health (DASH) cohort: now in their 20s. Open Health Data [in press]

Lum S, Bountziouka V, Harding S, Wade A, Lee S, Bonner R, Stocks J. Assessing pubertal status in multi-ethnic primary school children. Acta Pædiatrica [in press]

Read UM. ‘Doctor sickness’ or ‘pastor sickness’? Contested domains of healing power in the treatment of mental illness in Kintampo, Ghana. In: Basu H, Littlewood R, Steinforth, editors Religion, spirituality, and psychiatry: negotiating healthy minds - unsettling clinical practices. New York: [in press].

Read UM. Madness and miracles: hoping for healing in rural Ghana. In: Littlewood R, Napier D, editors Cosmos, Gods and Madmen in the Anthropology of Medicine. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press, [in press].

2014

Brueton V, Stevenson F, Vale CL, Stenning SP, Tierney JF, Harding S, Nazareth I, Meredith S, Rait G. Use of strategies to improve retention in primary care randomised trials: a qualitative study with in-depth interviews. BMJ Open 2014;4:e003835

open access  

Brueton VC, Tierney JF, Stenning S, Meredith S, Harding S, Nazareth I, Rait G. Strategies to improve retention in randomised trials: a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open 2014;4:e003821

open access  

Cooper MJF. Migrants’ health beliefs and their impact on general practice encounters: an in-depth interview study of French- and Swahili-speaking Africans and general practitioners working with migrant patients [PhD], MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow 2014.

Lum S, Sonnappa S, Wade A, Harding S, Wells J, Trelevan P, Cole T, Griffiths C, Kelly F, Bonner R, Bountziouka V, Kirkby J, Lee S, Raywood E, Legg S, Sears D, Stocks J. Exploring ethnic differences in lung function: the Size and Lung function In Children (SLIC) study protocol and feasibility. London, 2014

open access  

Read UM, Doku VCK, De-Graft Aikins A. Schizophrenia and psychosis in West Africa from the colonial era to the present. In: Akyeampong EK, Hill AG, Kleinman A, editors The Culture of Mental Illness and Psychiatric Practice in Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2014.

Read UM. Health inequalities: from ethnicity to diversity [editorial]. Ethnicity and Health 2014;19:119-121

pubmed  

Reid A, Lenguerrand E, Santos I, Read U, LaMontagne A, Fritschi L, Harding S. Taking risks and survival jobs: foreign-born workers and work-related injuries in Australia. Occupational and environmental medicine 2014;71 Suppl 1:A15

Reid A, Lenguerrand E, Santos I, Read U, Lamontagne A, Fritschi L, Harding S. Taking risks and survival jobs: foreign-born workers and work-related injuries in Australia. Safety Science 2014;70 :378-386

open access  

2013

Astell-Burt T, Maynard M, Lenguerrand E, Whitrow M, Molaodi O, Harding S. Effect of air pollution and racism on ethnic differences in respiratory health among adolescents living in an urban environment. Health & Place 2013;23:171-8

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Brueton VC, Tierney J, Stenning S, Harding S, Meredith S, Nazareth I, Rait G. Strategies to improve retention in randomised trials. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013;12:MR000032

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Etyang A, Harding S, Cruickshank JR. Slum living and hypertension in tropical settings: neglected issue, statistical artifact or surprisingly slight? Insights amidst adversity [editorial]. Journal of Hypertension 2013;31:877–879

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Harding S, Lenguerrand E, Costa G, d’Errico A, Martikainen P, Tarkiainen L, Blane D, Akinwale B, Bartley M. Trends in mortality by labour market position around retirement ages in three European countries with different welfare regimes. International Journal of Public Health 2013;58:99-108

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Rafnsson SB, Bhopal RS, Agyemang C, Fagot-Campagna A, Harding S, Hammar N, Hedlund E, Juel K, Primatesta P, Rosato M, Rey G, Wild SH, Mackenbach JP, Stirbu I, Kunst AE. Sizable variations in circulatory disease mortality by region and country of birth in six European countries. European Journal of Public Health 2013;23:594-605

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Rawlins E, Baker G, Maynard M, Harding S. Perceptions of healthy eating and physical activity in an ethnically diverse sample of young children and their parents: the DEAL prevention of obesity study. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 2013;26:132-44

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Read UM. ‘No matter how the child is, she is hers’ practical kinship in the care of mental illness in Kintampo, Ghana. Ghana Studies 2013;15/16

2012

Astell-Burt T, Maynard MJ, Lenguerrand E, Harding S. Racism, ethnic density and psychological well-being through adolescence: evidence from the Determinants of Adolescent Social well-being and Health longitudinal study. Ethnicity & Health [special issue: ethnic inequalities in mental health status and care] 2012;17:71-87

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Bhopal R, Snorri B, Rafnsson CA, Fagot-Campagna A, Giampaoli S, Hammer N, Harding S, Hedlund E, Juel K, Mackenback JP, Primatesta P, Rey G, Rosato M, Wild S, Kunst AE. Mortality from circulatory diseases by specific country of birth across six European countries: test of concept. European Journal of Public Health 2012;22:353-359

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Bhui K, Harding S. Editors' foreword to special issue: ethnic inequalities in mental health status and care - unravelling the determinants and consequences. Ethnicity & Health 2012;17:1-2

open access  

Bhui K, Lenguerrand E, Maynard MJ, Stansfeld S, Harding S. Does cultural integration explain a mental health advantage for adolescents?. International Journal of Epidemiology 2012;41:791-802

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Cooper M, Harding S, Mullen K, O'Donnell C. A chronic disease is a disease which keeps coming back…it is like the flu': chronic disease risk perception and explanatory models among French- and Swahili-speaking African migrants. Ethnicity & Health 2012;17:597-613

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Maynard MJ, Rosato M, Harding S. Trends in suicide mortality among migrant in England and Wales, 1979-2003. Ethnicity & Health 2012;17:135-40

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Molaodi OR, Leyland AH, Ellaway A, Kearns A, Harding S. Neighbourhood food and physical activity environments in England, UK: does ethnic density matter?. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2012;9:75

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Read UM . 'I want the one that will heal me completely so it won’t come back again' the limits of antipsychotic medication in rural Ghana. Transcultural Psychiatry 2012;49:438-460

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Read UM, Doku VCK. Mental health research in Ghana: a literature review. Ghana Medical Journal 2012;46

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Richardson E A, Mitchell R, Hartig T, de Vries S, Astell-Burt T, Frumkin H. Green cities and health: a question of scale?. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2012;66:160-165

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Teyhan A. The impact of neighbourhood and school environments on ethnic differences in body size in adolescence [PhD], MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow 2012.

open access  

Vandenheede H, Deboosere P, Stirbu I, Agyemang CO, Harding S, Juel K, Rafnsson SB, Regidor E, Rey G, Rosato M, Mackenbach JP, Kunst AE. Migrant mortality from diabetes mellitus across Europe: the importance of socio-economic change. European Journal of Epidemiology 2012;27:109-117

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2011

Akinwale B, Lynch K, Wiggins R, Harding S, Bartley M, Blane D. Work, permanent sickness and mortality risk: a prospective cohort study of England and Wales, 1971-2006. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2011;65:786-92

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Booker C, Harding S, Benzeval M. A systematic review of the effect of retention methods in population-based cohort studies. BMC Public Health 2011;11:249

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Brueton V, Tierney J, Stenning S, Nazareth I, Meredith S, Darbyshire J, Harding S, Rait G. Strategies to reduce attrition from randomised trials [protocol]. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011;Issue 2:Art. No.:MR000032

open access  

Doku V, Ofori-Atta A, Akpalu B, Osei A, Read U, Cooper S, MHaPP. Stakeholders' perceptions of the main challenges facing Ghana's mental health care system: a qualitative analysis . International Journal of Culture and Mental Health 2011;4:8-22

Harding S, Maynard MJ, Adamson A, Anderson AA, Mutrie N, Petticrew M, Baker G, Rawlins E. Final report: obesity in ethnic minority children and adolescents - developing acceptable parent and child-based interventions in schools and places of worship – the MRC DiEt and Active Living (DEAL) study. London, 2011

open access  

Mitchell R, Astell-Burt T E, Richardson E A. A comparison of green space measures for epidemiological research. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2011;65:853-8

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Twamley K, Puthussery S, Macfarlane A, Harding S, Baron I. UK born ethnic minority women and their experiences of feeding their newborn baby . Midwifery 2011;27:595-602

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2010

Atkin K, Bradby H, Harding S. How research issues play out in particular settings with great specificity [editorial]. Ethnicity & Health 2010;15ID - 634:317

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Atkin K, Bradby H, Harding S. Migrants and the key role that they play in what has been termed the age of migration [editorial]. Ethnicity & Health 2010;15ID - 635:435-9

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Awenva D, Read UM, Ofori-Attah AL, Doku VCK, Akpalu B, Osei AO, Flisher AJ, MHaPP Research Programme Consortium . From mental health policy development in Ghana to implementation: what are the barriers?. African Journal of Psychiatry 2010;13:184-191

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Harding S, Whitrow M, Lenguerrand E, Maynard MJ, Teyhan A, Cruickshank K, Der G. Emergence of ethnic differences in blood pressure in adolescence: the Determinants of Adolescent Social Well-being and Health study. Hypertension 2010;55:1063-9

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Maynard MJ, Harding S. Ethnic differences in psychological well-being in adolescence in the context of time spent in family activities. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 2010;45:115-23

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Maynard MJ, Harding S. Perceived parenting style and psychological well-being in UK ethnic minority adolescents. Child: Care, Health and Development 2010;36:630-8

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Mutrie N, Foster C, Estabrooks P, Burton N W, Baker G. Recruiting hard-to-reach populations to physical activity studies: evidence and experiences. Journal of Physical Activity and Health 2010;7:S329-S331

Ofori-Attah AL, Read UM, Lund C, MHaPP Research Programme Consortium . A situation analysis of mental health services and legislation in Ghana: challenges for transformation. African Journal of Psychiatry 2010;13:99-108

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Puthussery S, Twamley K, Macfarlane A, Harding S, Ahmed S, Mirsky J. ‘You need that loving tender care’ maternity care experiences and expectations of British-born ethnic minority women in the United Kingdom. Journal of Health Services Research & Policy 2010;15:156-62

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Whitrow M, Harding S. Asthma in Black African, Black Caribbean and South Asian adolescents in the MRC DASH study: a cross sectional analysis. BMC Pediatrics 2010;10:18

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Whitrow MJ, Harding S, Maynard M. The influence of parental smoking and family type on saliva cotinine in UK ethnic minority children: a cross sectional study. BMC Public Health 2010;10:262

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2009

Atkin H, Harding S, Bradby H. A welcome from the new editors. Ethnicity & Health 2009;14ID - 895:419-21

open access  

Gray S, Baker G, Wright A, Fitzsimons C, Mutrie N, Nimmo M, Scottish Physical Activity Research Collaboration . The effect of a 12 week walking intervention on markers of insulin resistance and systemic inflammation. Preventive Medicine 2009;48:39-44

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Harding S, Rosato M, Teyhan A. Trends in cancer mortality among migrants in England and Wales, 1979-2003. European Journal of Cancer 2009;45:2168-79

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Maynard MJ, Baker G, Rawlins E, Harding S. Developing obesity prevention interventions among minority ethnic children in schools and places of worship: the DEAL (DiEt and Active Living) study. BMC Public Health 2009;9:480

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Maynard MJ, Blane D. Dietary assessment in early old age: experience from the Boyd Orr Cohort. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009;63:S58-S63

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Puthussery S, Twamley K, Harding S, Mirsky J, Baron M, MacFarlane A. Born in the UK: maternity and postnatal care needs of UK-born ethnic minority women. Journal of Diversity in Health and Social Care 2009;6:305-8

Rawlins E. Choosing health? exploring children's eating practices at home and at school. Antipode 2009;41:1084–1109

Read UM, Adiibokah E, Nyame S . Local suffering and the global discourse of mental health and human rights: an ethnographic study of responses to mental illness in rural Ghana. Globalization and Health 2009;5:13

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Twamley K, Puthussery S, Macfarlane A, Harding S, Ahmed S, Mirsky J. Recruiting UK-born ethnic minority women for health research: lessons learned. Research Policy and Planning 2009;27:25-38

Wiggins RD, Akinwale B, Lynch K, Harding S, Bartley M, Blane D. Labour market position and health at older ages in England and Wales, 1971-2001. Gerontologist 2009;49

Williamson LM, Rosato M, Teyhan A, Santana P, Harding S. AIDS mortality in African migrants living in Portugal: evidence of large social inequalities. Sexually Transmitted Infections 2009;85:427-31

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2008

Harding S, Maynard MJ, Cruickshank K, Teyhan A. Overweight, obesity and high blood pressure in an ethnically diverse sample of adolescents in Britain: the Medical Research Council DASH study. International Journal of Obesity 2008;32:82-90

pubmed  open access  

Harding S, Rosato M, Teyhan A. Trends for coronary heart disease and stroke mortality among migrants in England and Wales, 1979-2003: slow declines notable for some groups. Heart 2008;94:463-470

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Harding S, Teyhan A, Maynard M, Cruickshank J K. Ethnic differences in overweight and obesity in early adolescence in the MRC DASH study: the role of adolescent and parental lifestyle. International Journal of Epidemiology 2008;37:162-172

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Harding S, Teyhan A, Rosato M, Santana P. All cause and cardiovascular mortality in African migrants living in Portugal: evidence of large social inequalities. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation 2008;15:670-6

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Puthussery S, Twamley K, Harding S, Mirsky J, Baron M, MacFarlane A. 'They’re more like ordinary stroppy British women' attitudes and expectations of maternity care professionals to UK-born ethnic minority women. Journal of Health Services Research & Policy 2008;13:195-201

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Whitrow M J, Harding S. Ethnic difference in adolescent lung function: anthropometric, socioeconomic, psychosocial factors. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2008;177:1262-7

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2007

Bradby H, Varyani M, Oglethorpe R, Raine W, White I, Helen M. British Asian families and the use of child and adolescent mental health services: a qualitative study of a hard to reach group. Social Science & Medicine 2007;65:2413-24

open access  

Bradby H. Watch out for the aunties! Young British Asian's accounts of identity and substance use. Sociology of Health & Illness 2007;29:656-672

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Frobisher C, Tilling K, Emmett PM, Maynard M, Ness AR, Smith DG, Frankel SJ, Gunnell DJ. Reproducibility measures and their effect on diet–cancer associations in the Boyd Orr cohort. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2007;61:434-440

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Gray L, Harding S, Reid A. Evidence of divergence with duration of residence in circulatory disease mortality in migrants to Australia. European Journal of Public Health 2007;17:550-554

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Gray L, Harding S, Reid A. Lower circulatory disease mortality among Australian South Asians [e-letter]ID - 1379. European Journal of Public Health 2007

open access  

Harding S, Whitrow M, Maynard MJ, Teyhan A. Cohort profile: the DASH (Determinants of Adolescent Social well-being and Health) Study, an ethnically diverse cohort. International Journal of Epidemiology 2007;36:512-517

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Harding S. The epidemiology of cancers in ethnic communities in the UK. In: Ly A, Khayat D, editors About cancer in Africa: from epidemiology to biomedical research applications and perspectives. Paris: National Cancer Institute (INCa)/Springer, 2007:523-536.

Maynard MJ, Harding S, Minnis H. Psychological well-being in Black Caribbean, Black African, and White adolescents in the UK Medical Research Council DASH study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 2007;42:759-769

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2006

Bradby H, Williams R. Is religion or culture the key feature in changes in substance use after leaving school? Young Punjabis and a comparison group in Glasgow. Ethnicity & Health 2006;11:307-324

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Harding S, Boroujerdi M, Santana P, Cruickshank K. Decline in, and lack of difference between, birth weights among African and Portuguese babies in Portugal. International Journal of Epidemiology 2006;35:270-276

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Harding S, Maynard M, Cruickshank K, Gray L. Anthropometry and blood pressure differences in Black Caribbean, African, South Asian and White adolescents: the MRC DASH study. Journal of Hypertension 2006;24:1507-1514

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Harding S, Santana P, Cruickshank K, Boroujerdi M. Birth weights of Black African babies of migrant and non-migrant mothers living in Portugal. Annals of Epidemiology 2006;16:572-579

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Maynard MJ, Gunnell D, Ness A, Abraham L, Bates C, Blane D. What influences diet in early old age? Prospective and cross-sectional analyses of the Boyd Orr cohort. European Journal of Public Health 2006;16:315-323

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Scanlon K, Harding S, Hunt K, Petticrew M, Rosato M, Williams R. Potential barriers to the prevention of cancers and to early cancer detection among Irish people living in Britain: a qualitative study. Ethnicity & Health 2006;11:325-341

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2005

Anderson AS, Bush H, Lean M, Bradby H, Williams R, Lea E. Evolution of atherogenic diets in South Asian and Italian women after migration to a higher risk region. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 2005;18:33-43

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Avendano M, Kunst AE, van Lenthe F, Bos V, Costa G, Valkonen T, Cardano M, Harding S, Borgan JK, Glickman M, Reid A, Mackenbach JP. Trends in socioeconomic disparities in stroke mortality in six European countries between 1981-1985 and 1991-1995. American Journal of Epidemiology 2005;161:52-61

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Maynard MJ, Ness AR, Abraham L, Blane D, Bates C, Gunnell DJ. Selecting a healthy diet score: lessons from a study of diet and health in early old age (the Boyd Orr cohort). Public Health Nutrition 2005;8:321-326

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Ness AR, Maynard M, Frankel S, Smith DG, Frobisher C, Leary SD, Emmett PM, Gunnell D. Diet in childhood and adult cardiovascular and all-cause mortality: the Boyd Orr cohort. Heart 2005;91:894-898

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Walls P, Williams R. Religious discrimination in Scotland: a rebuttal of Bruce et al.'s claim that sectarianism is a myth. Ethnic and Racial Studies 2005;28:759-767

Walls P. The health of Irish-descended Catholics in Glasgow: a qualitative study of the links between health risk and ethnic and religious identities [PhD], MRC Social and Public Health Sciences Unit 2005.

2004

Abbotts J E, Sweeting H, Williams R, West P. Is going to church good or bad for you? Denomination, attendance, and mental health of children in West Scotland. Social Science & Medicine 2004;58:645-656

Abbotts J, Harding S, Cruickshank J K. Cardiovascular risk profiles in UK-born Caribbeans and Irish living in England and Wales. Atherosclerosis 2004;175:295-303

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Abbotts J, Williams R, West P, Hunt K, Ford G. Catholic socio-economic disadvantage in the West of Scotland: a narrowing of inequality. Scottish Affairs 2004;49 (Autumn):77-87

Abbotts J. Irish Catholic health disadvantage in the West of Scotland. Scottish Affairs 2004;46 (winter):131-148

Arai L, Harding S. A review of the epidemiological literature on the health of UK-born Black Caribbeans: a misplaced focus. Critical Public Health 2004;14:81-116

Gunnell D, Berney L, Holland P, Maynard M, Blane D, Smith DG, Frankel S. Does the misreporting of adult body size depend upon an individual’s height and weight? Methodological debate. International Journal of Epidemiology 2004;33:1398-1399

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Harding S, Rosato M, Cruickshank J K. Lack of change in birthweights of infants by generational status among Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean and Black African mothers in a British cohort study. International Journal of Epidemiology 2004;33:1279-1285

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Harding S, Rosato M, Cruickshank J K. Mortality of migrants from the Caribbean to England and Wales: effect of duration of residence. International Journal of Epidemiology 2004;33:382-386

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Kunst A, Bos V, Andersen O, Cardano M, Costa G, Harding S, Hemström O, Layte R , Regidor E, Reid A, Santana P, Valkonen T, Mackenbach JP. Monitoring of trends in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality: experiences from a European project . Demographic Research 2004;S2:232-251

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Walls P, Williams R. Accounting for Irish Catholic ill health in Scotland: a qualitative exploration of some links between 'religion' class and health. Sociology of Health & Illness 2004;26:527-556

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Williams R, Harding S. Multicultural health care: Britain. In: Healy J, McKee M, editors Health care: responding to diversity. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2004:207-236.

Williams R, Harding S. Poverty, stress and racism as factors in South Asian heart disease. In: Patel K, editor The epidemic of coronary heart disease in South Asian populations: causes and consequences. British Heart Foundation and the South Asian Health Foundation, 2004.

2003

Blane D, Abraham L, Gunnell D, Maynard M, Ness A. Background influences on dietary choice in early old age. Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health 2003;123:204-209

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Harding S. Mortality of migrants from the Indian subcontinent to England and Wales: effect of duration of residence. Epidemiology 2003;14:287-292

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Harding S. Social mobility and self reported limiting long-term illness among West Indian and South Asian migrants living in England and Wales. Social Science & Medicine 2003;56:355-361

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Mackenbach J, Bos V, Andersen O, Cardano M, Costa G, Harding S, Kunst AE. Widening socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in six Western European countries. International Journal of Epidemiology 2003;32:830-7

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Maynard MJ, Gunnell DJ, Emmett P, Frankel S, Davey-Smith G. Fruit, vegetables, and antioxidants in childhood and risk of adult cancer: the Boyd Orr cohort. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2003;58:218-225

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Walls P, Williams R. Sectarianism at work: accounts of employment discriminating against Irish Catholics in Scotland. Ethnic and Racial Studies 2003;26:632-661

2002

Arai L, Harding S. Health and social care services for minority ethnic communities in the United Kingdom: a review of the literature on access and use. Glasgow, 2002

open access  

Arai L, Harding S. UK-born black Caribbeans: generational changes in health and well-being. Glasgow, 2002

open access  

Harding S, Balarajan R. Mortality data on migrant groups living in England and Wales: issues of adequacy and of interpretation of death rates. In: Haskey J, editor Population projections by ethnic group: a feasibility study. London: The Stationery Office, 2002:115-127.

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Maynard MJ. Healthy diet at post-retirement ages: a life course perspective. Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health 2002;122:142-143

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2001

Abbotts J, Sweeting H, Williams R, West P. Poor but healthy? The youngest generation of Irish Catholics in West Scotland. Health Bulletin 2001;59:373-379

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Abbotts J, Williams R, Ford G. Morbidity and Irish Catholic descent in Britain: relating health disadvantage to socio-economic position. Social Science & Medicine 2001;52:999-1005

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Harding S, Balarajan R. Longitudinal study of socio-economic differences in mortality among South Asian and West Indian migrants. Ethnicity & Health 2001;6:121-128

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Harding S, Balarajan R. Mortality of third generation Irish people living in England and Wales. BMJ 2001;322:466-467

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Lean MEJ, Han T S, Bush H, Anderson AS, Bradby H, Williams R. Ethnic differences in anthropometric and lifestyle measures related to coronary heart disease risk between South Asian, Italian and general population British women living in the West of Scotland. International Journal of Obesity 2001;25:1800-1805

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1998

Frankel S, Gunnell D J, Peters T, Maynard M, Smith DG. Childhood energy intake and adult mortality from cancer: the Boyd Orr cohort. BMJ 1998;316:499-504

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