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Staff Member Biography

Alastair H Leyland

Alastair H Leylandposition: Associate Director / Programme Leader

Contact Details

email:
phone: 0141 353 7504

Address

MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit,
University of Glasgow,
Top floor,
200, Renfield Street
Glasgow
G2 3QB

Biography and Interests

Alastair is Professor of Population Health Statistics and Associate Director of the MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit. He obtained his B.Sc. (Hons) in Mathematics and his M.Sc. in Applied Statistics from the University of Southampton and his Ph.D. from the University of Sunderland. He worked at the Public Health Research Unit at the University of Glasgow and, following its merger with the Medical Sociology Unit, has been working at the MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit since 1999. Alastair is on the Governing Board of the European Public Health Association (EUPHA), joint President of the Public Health Epidemiology section of EUPHA and serves on the committee of the Society for Social Medicine. He is a fellow of the Faculty of Public Health, a Chartered Statistician and a Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society. He has been an editor of the European Journal of Public Health since December 2009 and chaired the European Public Health Conference when it was held in Glasgow in 2014.

Alastair currently heads the research programme Measuring and Analysing Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health, having led the programme Measuring Health, Variations in Health and the Determinants of Health from 1999-2015. His recent research has focussed on inequalities in mortality in Scotland and the evaluation of natural experiments. Other research interests include the application of multilevel modelling to health data, particularly concerning its use as a tool for exploring inequalities, and expanding the uses of routinely collected and linked hospital discharge, mortality and register data. Alastair has also given a number of training courses with Professor Peter Groenewegen from the Netherlands Centre for Health Services Research: Health in Context: A course in Multilevel Modelling for Public Health and Health Services Research.

Publications

[in press]

Allik M, Brown D, Dundas R, Leyland AH. Small-area deprivation measure datasets for Scotland, 2001 and 2011. Data in Brief [in press]

Falster MO, Jorm LR, Douglas KA, Blyth FM, Leyland AH. Socio-demographic and health characteristics, rather than primary care supply, are major drivers of geographic variation in preventable hospitalisations in Australia. Medical Care [in press]

Green MJ, Leyland AH, Sweeting H, Benzeval M. Adolescent smoking and tertiary education: opposing pathways linking socioeconomic background to alcohol consumption. Addiction [in press]

Schofield L, Walsh D, Munoz-Arroyo R, McCartney G, Buchanan D, Lawder R, Armstrong M, Dundas R, Leyland AH. Dying younger in Scotland: trends in mortality and deprivation relative to England and Wales, 1981-2011. Health & Place [in press]

2016

Allik M, Brown D, Dundas R, Leyland AH. Developing a new small-area measure of deprivation using 2001 and 2011 census data from Scotland. Health & Place 2016;39:122–130

open access  

Geue C, Lewsey J, Wu O, Leyland AH, Quinn T. Geographic variation of inpatient care costs at the end of life. Age and Ageing 2016;[epub ahead of print]

open access  

Green MJ, Leyland AH, Sweeting H, Benzeval M. Socioeconomic position and early adolescent smoking development: evidence from the British Youth Panel Survey (1994-2008). Tobacco Control 2016;25:203-210

open access  

O’Flaherty M, Bandosz P, Critchley J, Capewell S, Aspelund T, Bennett K, Björck L, Bruthans J, Hotchkiss J, Hughes J, Laatikainen T, Palmieri L, Zdrojewski T, on behalf of the Euroheart II Steering Group (including Davies CA Dundas R Leyland AH). Exploring potential mortality reductions in 9 European countries by improving diet and lifestyle: a modelling approach. International Journal of Cardiology 2016;207:286–291

open access  

Pannullo F, Lee D, Waclawski E, Leyland AH. How robust are the estimated effects of air pollution on health? Accounting for model uncertainty using Bayesian model averaging. Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology 2016;[in press]

open access  

2015

Brown J, Neary J, Katikireddi SV, Thomson H, McQuaid R, Leyland AH, Frank J, Kiran S, Macdonald EB. Protocol for a mixed-methods longitudinal study to identify factors influencing return to work in the over 50s participating in the UK Work Programme: Supporting Older People into Employment (SOPIE). BMJ Open 2015;5:e010525

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 2: Alcohol consumption. In: Campbell-Jack D, Hinchliffe S, Bromley C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2014 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2015.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 3: Smoking. In: Campbell-Jack D, Hinchliffe S, Bromley C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2014 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2015.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 9: Inequalities in health risks. In: Campbell-Jack D, Hinchliffe S, Bromley C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2014 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2015.

open access  

Hughes J, Kabir Z, Bennett K, Hotchkiss JW, Kee F, Leyland AH, Davies C, Bandosz P, Guzman-Castillo M, O’Flaherty M, Capewell S, Critchley J. Modelling future coronary heart disease mortality to 2030 in the British Isles. PLoS One 2015;10:e0138044

open access  

Leyland AH, Ricciardi W, McKee M, Zeegers Paget D. Health inequalities are unnecessary and unjust [editorial]. Eurohealth 2015;21:2

open access  

Lumme S, Sund R, Leyland AH, Keskimäki I. Monte Carlo method to estimate the confidence intervals for the concentration index using aggregated population register data. Health Services and Outcomes Research Methodology 2015;15:82-98

open access  

Pannullo F, Lee D, Waclawski E, Leyland A. Improving spatial nitrogen dioxide prediction using diffusion tubes: A case study in West Central Scotland. Atmospheric Environment 2015;118:227–235

open access  

Seaman R, Dundas R , Leyland AH , Mitchell R , Popham F. How much of the difference in life expectancy between Scottish cities does deprivation explain? Calculating and decomposing inequalities across deprivation deciles. BMC Public Health 2015;15:1057

open access  

Seaman R, Popham F, Leyland A. How have trends in lifespan variation changed since 1950? A comparative study of 17 Western European countries. European Journal of Public Health 2015;[epub ahead of print]

open access  

2014

Brown D, Allik M, Dundas R, Leyland AH. Carstairs Scores for Scottish postcode sectors, datazones and output areas from the 2011 Census. MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit Occasional Paper, Glasgow, 2014

open access  

Dundas R, Leyland AH, Macintyre S. Early-life school, neighborhood, and family influences on adult health: a multilevel cross-classified analysis of the Aberdeen children of the 1950s study. American Journal of Epidemiology 2014;180:197-207

open access  

Dundas R, Leyland AH, Macintyre S. Multilevel analysis of individual heterogeneity: a fundamental critique of the current probabilistic risk factor epidemiology [response to invited commentary]. American Journal of Epidemiology 2014;180:208-12

open access  

Dundas R, Ouédraogo S, Bond L, Briggs AH, Chalmers J, Gray R, Wood R, Leyland AH. Evaluation of Health in Pregnancy grants in Scotland: a protocol for a natural experiment. BMJ Open 2014;4:e006547

open access  

Gorman E, Leyland AH, McCartney G, White IR, Katikireddi SV, Rutherford L, Graham L, Gray L. Assessing the representativeness of population-sampled health surveys through linkage to administrative data on alcohol-related outcomes. American Journal of Epidemiology 2014;180 :941-948

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 4: Smoking. In: Rutherford L, Hinchliffe S, Sharp C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2013 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2014.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 5: Alcohol consumption. In: Rutherford L, Hinchliffe S, Sharp C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2013 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2014.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 8: General health, mental wellbeing and caring. In: Rutherford L, Hinchliffe S, Sharp C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2013 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2014.

open access  

Hotchkiss JW, Davies CA, Dundas R, Hawkins N, Jhund PS, Scholes S, Bajekal M, O’Flaherty M, Critchley J, Leyland AH, Capewell S. Explaining trends in Scottish coronary heart disease mortality between 2000 and 2010: socioeconomic analysis using the IMPACTSEC model. The BMJ 2014;348:g1088

open access  

Leyland AH, Groenewegen PP. Hierarchical linear modeling. In: Michalos AC, editor Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research. Dordrecht: Springer, 2014:2861-2863.

Leyland AH, Groenewegen PP. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). In: Michalos AC, editor Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research. Dordrecht: Springer, 2014:3367-3368.

Ralston K, Dundas R, Leyland AH. A comparison of the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) 2004 with the 2009+1 SIMD: does choice of measure affect the interpretation of inequality in mortality?. International Journal of Health Geographics 2014;13

open access  

Randall DA, Jorm LR, Lujic S, Eades SJ, Churches TR, O’Loughlin AJ, Leyland AH. Exploring disparities in acute myocardial infarction events between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians: roles of age, gender, geography and area-level disadvantage. Health & Place 2014;28:58–66

open access  

2013

Claussen B, Næss Ø, Reime LJ, Leyland AH. Firm downsizing and diagnosis-specific disability pensioning in Norway. BMC Public Health 2013;13:27

open access  

Falster MO, Randall DA, Lujica S, Ivers R, Leyland AH, Jorma LR. Disentangling the impacts of geography and Aboriginality on serious road transport injuries in New South Wales. Accident Analysis and Prevention 2013;54:32-8

pubmed  open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH, Benzeval M, Watt GCM. Explaining the social patterning of lung function in adulthood at different ages: the roles of childhood precursors, health behaviours and environmental factors. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2013;67:905-91

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 4: Smoking. In: Rutherford L, Sharp C, Bromley C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2012 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2013.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 7: Obesity. In: Rutherford L, Sharp C, Bromley C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2012 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2013.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 8: Long-term conditions. In: Rutherford L, Sharp C, Bromley C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2012 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2013.

open access  

Gray L, White IR, McCartney G, Katikireddi SV, Rutherford L, Gorman E, Leyland AH. Use of record-linkage to handle non-response and improve alcohol consumption estimates in health survey data: a study protocol. BMJ Open 2013;3:e002647

open access  

Hotchkiss JW, Davies CA, Leyland AH. Adiposity has differing associations with incident coronary heart disease and mortality in the Scottish population: cross-sectional surveys with follow-up. International Journal of Obesity 2013;37:732-739

pubmed  open access  

Katikireddi SV, Gorman DR, Leyland AH. A comparison of trends in caesarean section rates in former communist (transition) countries and other European countries. European Journal of Public Health 2013;23:381-3

pubmed  open access  

Leyland AH. Youth unemployment at times of recession: what does the future hold? [editorial]. European Journal of Public Health 2013;23:527

open access  

McCallum AK, Manderbacka K, Arffman M, Leyland AH, Keskimäki I. Socioeconomic differences in mortality amenable to health care among Finnish adults 1992-2003: 12 year follow up using individual level linked population register data. BMC Health Services Research 2013;13:3

open access  

Mok PLH, Leyland AH, Kapur N, Windfuhr K, Appleby L, Platt S, Webb RT. Why does Scotland have a higher suicide rate than England? An area-level investigation of health and social factors. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2013;67:63-70

pubmed  open access  

Randall DA, Jorm LR, Lujic S, O’Loughlin A, Eades S, Leyland AH. Disparities in revascularization rates after acute myocardial infarction between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in Australia. Circulation 2013;127:811-819

pubmed  

2012

Brown D, Benzeval M, Gayle V, Macintyre S, O'Reilly D, Leyland AH. Childhood residential mobility and health in late adolescence and adulthood: findings from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2012;66:942-950

pubmed  open access  

Brown D, O'Reilly D, Gayle V, Macintyre S, Benzeval M, Leyland AH. Socio-demographic and health characteristics of individuals left behind in deprived and declining areas in Scotland. Health & Place 2012;18:440-444

pubmed  open access  

Cooper C, Frank J, Leyland AH, Hardy R, Lawlor DA, Wareham NJ, Dezateux C, Inskip H. Using cohort studies in lifecourse epidemiology. Public Health 2012;126:190-192

pubmed  open access  

Ellaway A, Benzeval M, Green M, Leyland AH, Macintyre S. 'Getting sicker quicker': does living in a more deprived neighbourhood mean your health deteriorates faster?. Health & Place 2012;18:132-7

pubmed  open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 3: diet. In: Rutherford L, Sharp C, Bromley C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2011 volume 2: children. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2012:62-85.

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 5: obesity. In: Rutherford L, Sharp C, Bromley C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2011 volume 2: children. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2012:101-115.

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 7: obesity. In: Rutherford L, Sharp C, Bromley C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2011 volume 1: adults. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2012:185-205.

Gray L, Merlo J, Mindell J, Hallqvist J, Tafforeau J, O'Reilly D, Regidor E, Næss Ø, Kelleher C, Helakorpi S, Lange C, Leyland AH. International differences in self-reported health measures in 33 major metropolitan areas in Europe. European Journal of Public Health 2012;22:40-7

pubmed  open access  

Hotchkiss J W, Davies C, Gray L, Bromley C, Capewell S, Leyland AH. Trends in cardiovascular disease biomarkers and their socioeconomic patterning among adults in the Scottish population 1995 to 2009: cross-sectional surveys. BMJ Open 2012;2:e000771

open access  

Leyland AH. Alcohol, financial crisis and reform: learning from the Russian experience [editorial]. European Journal of Public Health 2012;22:300

pubmed  open access  

Lumme S, Sund R, Leyland AH, Keskimäki I. Socioeconomic equity in amenable mortality in Finland 1992-2008. Social Science & Medicine 2012;75:905-13

pubmed  

Mok PL, Kapur N, Windfhur K, Leyland AH, Appleby L, Platt S, Webb RT. Trends in national suicide rates for Scotland and England and Wales, 1960-2008. British Journal of Psychiatry 2012;200:245-251

pubmed  open access  

Mok PLH, Kapur N, Windfuhr K, Appleby L, Leyland AH, Platt S, Webb RT. Authors’ reply [letter]. British Journal of Psychiatry 2012;201

Molaodi OR, Leyland AH, Ellaway A, Kearns A, Harding S. Neighbourhood food and physical activity environments in England, UK: does ethnic density matter?. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2012;9:75

pubmed  open access  

Randall DA, Jorm LR, Lujic S, O’Loughlin AJ, Churches TR, Haines MM, Eades SJ, Leyland AH. Mortality after admission for acute myocardial infarction in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in New South Wales, Australia: a multilevel data linkage study. BMC Public Health 2012;12:281

pubmed  open access  

The National Evaluation of Sure Start (NESS) Research Team (including Leyland AH) . The impact of Sure Start Local Programmes on seven year olds and their families DFE-RR220. London, 2012

open access  

2011

Benzeval M, Green MJ, Leyland AH. Do social inequalities in health widen or converge with age? Longitudinal evidence from three cohorts in the West of Scotland. BMC Public Health 2011;11:947

pubmed  open access  

Fairley L, Dundas R, Leyland AH. The influence of both individual and area based socioeconomic status on temporal trends in Caesarean sections in Scotland 1980-2000. BMC Public Health 2011;11:330

pubmed  open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 5: fruit and vegetable consumption. In: Bromley C, Bradshaw P, Given L, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2010 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2011.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 7: adult and child obesity. In: Bromley C, Given L, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2010 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2011.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 8: respiratory health and lung function. In: Bromley C, Given L, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2010 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: 2011.

open access  

Hotchkiss J W, Davies C, Gray L, Bromley C, Capewell S, Leyland AH. Trends in adult cardiovascular disease risk factors and their socio-economic patterning in the Scottish population 1995-2008: cross-sectional surveys. BMJ Open 2011;1:e000176

open access  

Hotchkiss J W, Leyland AH. The relationship between body size and mortality in the linked Scottish Health Surveys: cross-sectional surveys with follow-up. International Journal of Obesity 2011;35:838-51

pubmed  open access  

McCartney G, Mahmood L, Leyland AH, Batty GD, Hunt K. Contribution of smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths to the gender gap in mortality: evidence from 30 European countries. Tobacco Control 2011;20:166-8

pubmed  open access  

Popham F, Boyle P, O'Reilly D, Leyland AH. Selective internal migration: does it explain Glasgow's worsening mortality record?. Health & Place 2011;17:1212-17

pubmed  open access  

2010

Brown D, Leyland AH. Scottish mortality rates 2000-2002 by deprivation and small area population mobility. Social Science & Medicine 2010;71:1951-7

pubmed  open access  

Davies CA, Leyland AH. Trends and inequalities in short-term acute myocardial infarction case fatality in Scotland, 1988-2004. Population Health Metrics 2010;8:33

pubmed  open access  

Dundas R, Leyland AH. The social patterning of deaths due to assault in Scotland, 1980-2005: a population based study. AQMeN Applied Quantitative Methods Newsletter 2010;3

Fransson C, Tomasi C, Leyland AH, Wennström J, Berglundh T. Severity and pattern of peri-implantitis-associated bone loss. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 2010;37:442-8

pubmed  

Gray L, Batty GD, Craig P, Stewart C, Whyte B, Findlayson B, Leyland AH. Cohort profile: the Scottish Health Surveys Cohort - linkage of study participants to routinely collected records for mortality, hospital discharge, cancer and offspring birth characteristics in three nationwide studies. International Journal of Epidemiology 2010;39:345-50

pubmed  open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 5: diet. In: Bromley C, Given L, Ormston R, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2009 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2010.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 7: adult obesity. In: Bromley C, Given L, Ormston R, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2009 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2010.

open access  

Jackson A, Davies CA, Leyland AH. Do differences in the administrative structure of populations confound comparisons of geographic health inequalities?. BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010;10:74

pubmed  open access  

Leyland AH, Dundas R. The social patterning of deaths due to assault in Scotland, 1980-2005: population based study. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2010;64:432-9

pubmed  open access  

Leyland AH. Methodological challenges in the evaluation of community interventions. European Journal of Public Health 2010;20:242-3

pubmed  

Leyland AH. No quick fix: understanding the difference between fixed and random effect models [editorial]. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2010;64:1027-8

pubmed  

Næss Ø, Leyland AH. Analysing the effect of area of residence over the life course in multilevel epidemiology. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 2010;38:119-26

pubmed  open access  

Popham F, Boyle P, O'Reilly D, Leyland AH. Exploring the impact of selective migration on the deprivation-mortality gap within Greater Glasgow. February 2010. Glasgow, 2010

open access  

Tarkiainen L, Martikainen P, Laaksonen M, Leyland AH. Comparing the effects of neighbourhood characteristics on all-cause mortality using two hierarchical areal units in the capital region of Helsinki. Health & Place 2010;16:409-12

pubmed  

The National Evaluation of Sure Start (NESS) Research Team (including Leyland AH) . The impact of Sure Start Local Programmes on five year olds and their families DFE-RR067. London, 2010

open access  

2009

Belsky J, Leyland AH, Barnes J, Melhuish E.. Sure Start in England. The Lancet 2009;373ID - 876:381

open access  

Bond L, Leyland AH, Macintyre S, Wight D. Evaluation of a youth development programme demonstrates the need for the randomised roll-out of community interventions [rapid response] ID - 870. BMJ 2009:July 16th

open access  

Brown D, Leyland AH. Population mobility, deprivation and self-reported limiting long-term illness in small areas across Scotland. Health & Place 2009;15:37-44

pubmed  open access  

Davies CA, Dundas R, Leyland AH. Increasing socioeconomic inequalities in first acute myocardial infarction in Scotland, 1990-92 and 2000-2. BMC Public Health 2009;9:134

pubmed  open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. A multilevel analysis of diet and socio-economic status in Scotland: investigating the 'Glasgow effect'. Public Health Nutrition 2009;12:1351-8

pubmed  open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 4: smoking. In: Bromley C, Bradshaw P, Given L, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2008 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2009:101-136.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 5: fruit and vegetable consumption. In: Bromley C, Bradshaw P, Given L, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2008 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2009:137-156.

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 7: obesity. In: Bromley C, Bradshaw P, Given L, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2008 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2009:191-228.

Gray L, Leyland AH. Is the 'Glasgow effect' of cigarette smoking explained by socio-economic status? A multilevel analysis. BMC Public Health 2009;9:245

pubmed  open access  

Leyland AH, Lynch JW. Why is mortality from coronary heart disease in young adults no longer falling? . BMJ 2009;339:b5215

pubmed  open access  

Leyland AH, Næss Ø. The effect of area of residence over the life course on subsequent mortality. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A 2009;172:555-78.

open access  

Manderbacka K, Arffman M, Leyland AH, McCallum A, Keskimäki I. Change and persistence in health care inequalities: access to elective surgery in Finland in 1992-2003. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 2009;37:131-8

pubmed  open access  

2008

Bloor M, Gannon M, Hay G, Jackson G, Leyland AH, McKeganey N. Contribution of problem drug users' deaths to excess mortality in Scotland: secondary analysis of cohort study. BMJ 2008;337:a478

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Overweight status and psychological wellbeing in adolescent boys and girls: a multilevel analysis. European Journal of Public Health 2008;18:616-621

pubmed  open access  

Lumme S, Leyland AH, Keskimäki I. Multilevel modeling of regional variation in equity in health care. Medical Care 2008;46:976-983

pubmed  

Melhuish E, Belsky J, Leyland AH, Barnes J, the National Evaluation of Sure Start Research Team . Effects of fully-established Sure Start Local Programmes on 3 year old children and their families living in England: a quasi-experimental observational study. The Lancet 2008;372:1641-47

pubmed  

Næss Ø, Smith DG, Claussen B, Leyland AH. Life course influence of residential area on cause specific mortality. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2008;62:29-34

pubmed  open access  

The National Evaluation of Sure Start (NESS) Research Team (including Leyland AH) . The impact of Sure Start Local Programmes on three year olds and their families NESS/2008/FR/027. London, 2008

2007

Leyland AH, Dundas R, McLoone P, Boddy FA. Inequalities in mortality in Scotland 1981-2001. Glasgow, 2007

open access  

Leyland AH, Dundas R, McLoone P, Boddy FA. Cause-specific inequalities in mortality in Scotland: two decades of change - a population-based study. BMC Public Health 2007;7:172

pubmed  open access  

Leyland AH, Næss Ø. Multilevel modelling of the longitudinal influence of neighbourhoods on health [e-letter]. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health Online 2007:18 January

open access  

Manda SOM, Leyland AH. An empirical comparison of maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation methods for multivariate disease mapping. South African Statistical Journal 2007;41:1-21

Melhuish E, Belsky J, Anning A, Ball M, Barnes J, Romaniuk H, Leyland AH, NESS Research Team . Variation in community intervention programmes and consequences for children and families: the example of Sure Start Local Programmes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2007;48:543-551

pubmed  

Næss Ø, Piro F N, Nafstad P, Smith DG, Leyland AH. Air pollution, social deprivation, and mortality: a multilevel cohort study. Epidemiology 2007;18:686-694

pubmed  open access  

Tomasi C, Leyland AH, Wennstrom JL. Factors influencing the outcome of non-surgical periodontal treatment: a multilevel approach. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 2007;34:682-690

pubmed  

2006

Belsky J, Melhuish E, Barnes J, Leyland AH, Romaniuk H, National Evaluation of Sure Start research team. Effects of Sure Start local programmes on children and families: early findings from a quasi-experimental, cross sectional study. BMJ 2006;332:1476-1748

pubmed  open access  

Chaix B, Leyland AH, Sabel CE, Chauvin P, Rastam L, Kristersson H, Merlo J. Spatial clustering of mental disorders and associated characteristics of the neighbourhood context in Malmo, Sweden, in 2001. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2006;60:427-435

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Dundas R, Leyland AH, Macintyre S, Leon DA. Does the primary school attended influence self-reported health or its risk factors in later life? Aberdeen Children of the 1950s Study. International Journal of Epidemiology 2006;35:458-465

pubmed  open access  

Fairley L, Leyland AH. Social class inequalities in perinatal outcomes: Scotland 1980-2000. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2006;60:31-36

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Kajantie M, Manderbacka K, McCallum A, Notkola I-L, Arffman M, Forssas E, Karvonen S, Kortteinen M, Leyland AH, Keskimäki I. How to carry out register-based health services research in Finland? Compiling complex study data in the REDD project. Helsinki, 2006

open access  

Levin K A, Leyland AH. A comparison of health inequalities in urban and rural Scotland. Social Science & Medicine 2006;62:1457-1464

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Levin K A, Leyland AH. Urban-rural inequalities in ischemic heart disease in Scotland, 1981-1999. American Journal of Public Health 2006;96:145-151

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Leyland AH. Homicides involving knives and other sharp objects in Scotland, 1981-2003. Journal of Public Health 2006;28:145-147

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2005

Barnes J, Belsky J, Broomfield KA, Dave S, Frost M, Melhuish E, National Evaluation of Sure Start Research Team, (including Leyland AH). Disadvantaged but different: variation among deprived communities in relation to child and family well-being. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2005;46:952-962

pubmed  

Gray L, Leyland AH. General and psychosocial health. In: Bromley S, Shelton N, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2003 volume 3: children. Edinburgh: The Scottish Executive Department of Health, 2005:129-168.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. General health, psychosocial health and use of services. In: Bromley C, Sproston K, Shelton N, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2003 volume 2: adults. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive, 2005:191-254.

open access  

Levin K A, Leyland AH. Urban/rural inequalities in suicide in Scotland, 1981-1999. Social Science & Medicine 2005;60:2877-2890

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Leyland AH, Davies CA. Empirical Bayes methods for disease mapping. Statistical Methods in Medical Research 2005;14:17-34

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Leyland AH. Assessing the impact of mobility on health: implications for life course epidemiology. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2005;59:90-91

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Leyland AH. Socioeconomic gradients in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Scotland: the roles of composition and context. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2005;59:799-803

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Næss Ø, Leyland AH , Davey-Smith G, Claussen B. Contextual effect on mortality of neighbourhood level education explained by earlier life deprivation. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2005;59:1058-59

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The National Evaluation of Sure Start (NESS) Research Team (including Leyland AH) . Early impacts of Sure Start Local Programmes on children and families; report of the cross-sectional study of 9-and 36-month old children and their families NESS/2005/FR/013. Nottingham, 2005

open access  

Tunstill J, Allnock D, Akhurst S, Garbers C, NESS research team, (including Leyland A. H.). Sure Start Local Programmes: Implications of case study data from the National Evaluation of Sure Start. Children & Society 2005;19:158-171

2004

Davies CA, Leyland AH. Spatial patterns of cancer mortality in Europe. In: Kirch W, editor Public health in Europe: 10 years EUPHA. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2004:227-243.

Leyland AH. Increasing inequalities in premature mortality in Great Britain. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2004;58:296-302

pubmed  open access  

The National Evaluation of Sure Start (NESS) Research Team (including Leyland AH) . The national evaluation of Sure Start Local Programmes in England. Child and Adolescent Mental Health 2004;9:2-8

open access  

West P, Sweeting H, Leyland AH. School effects on pupils' health behaviours: evidence in support of the health promoting school. Research Papers in Education 2004;19:261-291

2003

Gravelle H, Sutton M, Morris S, Windmeijer F, Leyland AH, Dibben C, Muirhead M. A model of supply and demand influences on the use of health care: implications for deriving a 'needs-based' capitation formula. Health Economics 2003;12:985-1004

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Hetemaa T, Keskimäki I, Manderbacka K, Leyland AH, Koskinen S. How did the recent increased supply of coronary operations in Finland affect socio-economic and gender equity in their use?. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2003;57:178-185

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Leyland AH, Groenewegen PP. Multilevel modelling and public health policy. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 2003;31:267-274

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The National Evaluation of Sure Start (NESS) Research Team (including Leyland AH) . Profiles of rounds 1 to 4 Sure Start Local Programme areas and a sample of round 5, to-be-Sure Start local programme areas. Nottingham, 2003

open access  

2002

Sutton M, Gravelle H, Morris S, Leyland AH, Windmeijer F, Dibben C, Muirhead M. Allocation of resources to English areas: individual and small area determinants of morbidity and use of healthcare resources. Edinburgh, 2002

The National Evaluation of Sure Start (NESS) Research Team (including Leyland AH) . Asking the right questions: the National Evaluation of Sure Start. Interplay 2002;1:26-31

Westert G, Lagoe R, Keskimäki I, Leyland AH, Murphy M. An international study of hospital readmissions and related utilization in Europe and the USA. Health Policy 2002;61:269-278

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2001

Goldstein H, Leyland AH. Further topics in multilevel modelling. In: Leyland AH, Goldstein H, editors Multilevel modelling of health statistics. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2001:175-186.

Keskimäki I, Karvonen S, Sund R, Leyland AH. Monitasomallien käyttö terveystutkimuksessa [Multilevel modelling in health research]. Sosiäälilaaketieteellinen Aikakauslehti [Journal of Social Medicine] 2001;38:327-335

Lewsey JD, Murray GD, Leyland AH, Boddy FA. Using routine data to complement and enhance the results of randomised controlled trials. In: Stevens A, Abrams K, Brazier R, Lilford R, editors The advanced handbook of research methods in evidence based health care: insights from the NHS HTA programme. London: Sage, 2001:149-165.

Leyland AH, Goldstein H , (eds). Multilevel modelling of health statistics. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2001.

Leyland AH. Comment on Smith PC, Rice N, Carr-Hill, R. Capitation funding in the public sector. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A 2001:164-245

Leyland AH. Spatial analysis. In: Leyland AH, Goldstein H, editors Multilevel modelling of health statistics. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2001:143-157.

Morrison JM, Carroll L, Twaddle SE, Cameron IT, Grimshaw JM, Leyland AH, Baillie HM, Watt GCM. A pragmatic randomised controlled trial to evaluate guidelines for the management of infertility across the primary-secondary interface. BMJ 2001;322:1282-1284

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2000

Lewsey JD, Leyland AH, Murray GD, Boddy FA. Using routine data to complement and enhance the results of randomised controlled trials. Health Technology Assessment 2000;4:1-55

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Leyland AH, Langford I H, Rasbash J, Goldstein H. Multivariate spatial models for event data. Statistics in Medicine 2000;19:2469-2478

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Leyland AH, McLeod A. Mortality in England and Wales, 1979-1992, an introduction to Multilevel Modelling using MLwiN. MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit Occasional Paper 1, Glasgow, 2000

open access  

1999

Langford IH, Leyland AH, Rasbash J, Goldstein H, Day RJ, McDonald AL. Multilevel modelling of area-based health data. In: Lawson A, Biggeri A, Bohning D, Lesaffre E, Viel JF, Bertolini R, editors Disease mapping and risk assessment for public health. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 1999:217-228.

Langford IH, Leyland AH, Rasbash J, Goldstein H. Multilevel modelling of the geographical distributions of rare diseases. Applied Statistics 1999;48:253-268

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Lewsey JD, Murray GD, Leyland AH, Boddy FA. Comparing outcomes of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty with coronary artery bypass grafting: can routine health service data complement and enhance randomised controlled trials?. European Heart Journal 1999;20:1731-1735

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1998

Leyland AH, Boddy FA. League tables and acute myocardial infarction. The Lancet 1998;351:555-558

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1997

Leyland AH, Boddy FA. Measuring performance in hospital care: the example of length of stay in gynaecology. European Journal of Public Health 1997;7:136-143

open access  

1996

Langford IH, Leyland AH, Rasbash J, Goldstein H. Multilevel modelling of the geographical distribution of rare diseases. In: Symposium on the expansion method (proceedings) vol 2. Odense, Denmark: 1996:69-90.

Langford IH, Leyland AH. Comment on Goldstein H, Spiegelhalter DJ. League tables and their limitations: statistical issues in comparisons of institutional performance. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A 1996;159:427-428

Rice N, Leyland A. Multilevel models: applications to health data. Journal of Health Services Research and Policy 1996;1:154-64

Rice N, Leyland AH. Multilevel models: application to health data. Journal of Health Services Research & Policy 1996;1:154-164

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1995

Leyland AH. Examining the relationship between length of stay and readmission rates for selected diagnoses in Scottish hospitals. The Institute of Mathematics and its Applications Journal of Mathematics Applied in Medicine and Biology 1995;12:175-184

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1993

Barnard MA, McKeganey NP, Leyland AH. HIV-related risk behaviours among a sample of male clients of female prostitutes. BMJ 1993;307:361-362

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Frischer M, Leyland AH, Cormack RM, Goldberg DJ, Bloor MJ, Green ST, Taylor A, Covell R, Mckeganey NP, Platt S. Estimating the population prevalence of injection drug use and infection with human immunodeficiency virus among injection drug users in Glasgow. American Journal of Epidemiology 1993;138:170-181

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Leyland AH, Barnard MA, McKeganey NP. The use of capture-recapture methodology to estimate and describe covert populations: an application to female street-working prostitution in Glasgow. Bulletin de Methodologie Sociologique 1993;38:52-73

Leyland AH. Health inequalities and births to single mothers. BMJ 1993;306:1615

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Leyland AH. Socioeconomic and racial differences in obstetric procedures. American Journal of Public Health 1993;83:1178-1179

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Leyland AH. The effect of previous cesarean section on current cesarean rates. American Journal of Public Health 1993;83:115-116

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McGee AM, Mutch LM, Leyland AH. Assessing children who cannot be 'tested'. Educational Psychology 1993;13:43-48

Mutch L, Leyland AH, McGee AM. Patterns of neuropsychological function in a low birthweight population. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 1993;35:943-956

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1992

Frischer M, Leyland A. Reliability of population and prevalence estimates [letter]. The Lancet 1992;339:995

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Leyland AH, Pritchard CW. Fetal growth and ratio of placental weight to birth weight. BMJ 1992;304:1052-1053

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Leyland AH. Gestational age and obstetric performance. The Lancet 1992;339:122

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McKeganey NP, Barnard MA, Leyland A, Coote I, Follett E. Female streetworking prostitution and HIV infection in Glasgow. BMJ 1992;305:801-804

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The Scottish Low Birthweight Study Group (including Leyland AH) . The Scottish low birthweight study: I. Survival, growth, neuromotor and sensory impairment. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1992;67:675-681

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The Scottish Low Birthweight Study Group (including Leyland AH) . The Scottish low birthweight study: II. Language attainment, cognitive status and behavioural problems. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1992;67:682-686

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1991

Bloor MJ, Leyland A, Barnard MA, McKeganey NP. Estimating hidden populations: a new method of calculating the prevalence of drug-injecting and non-injecting female street prostitution. British Journal of Addiction 1991;86:1477-1483

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Farrow M, Leyland AH. Interpretation of oral glucose tolerance test results. In: Dunstan F, Pickles J, editors Statistics in Medicine. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991:249-266.

Leyland AH, Pritchard CW, McLoone P, Boddy FA. Measures of performance in Scottish maternity hospitals. BMJ 1991;303:389-393

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Leyland AH, Pritchard CW. What do doctors know of statistics?. The Lancet 1991;337:679

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Leyland AH. Trends in caesarean section. The Lancet 1991;337:1481-1482

1990

Leyland AH, Boddy FA. Maternal age and outcome of pregnancy. New England Journal of Medicine 1990;323:413-414

McKeganey NP, Barnard MA, Bloor MJ, Leyland AH. Injecting drug use and female streetworking prostitution in Glasgow. AIDS 1990;4:1153-1155

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Mutch L, Leyland AH. Growth and nutrition in children with cerebral palsy. The Lancet 1990;336:569-670

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